In yeast some species, replicative ageing may be caused by homologous recombination between rDNA it repeats excision of Recombinant DNA results in the formation of extrachromosomal Recombinant DNA circles. These Extrachromosomal Recombinant DNA Circles replicates and isolates to the mother cell during cell division, and are believed to result in cellular senescence by titrating away essential nuclear factors if Extrachromosomal Recombinant DNA Circles have not observed in any other species of yeast and ERCs are not believed to contribute to ageing in higher organisms example like humans. Extrachromosomal circular DNA has been found in worms, flies, and humans. The origin and role of eccDNA in ageing is unknown. RAS1 and RAS2 also affect aging in yeast and have a human homologue. RAS2 over expression has been shown to extend lifespan in yeast. Superoxide dismutase, a protein that protects against the effects of mitochondrial free radicals, can extend yeast lifespan in stationary phase when overexpressed. In case of higher organism, aging is like to be regulated in part through the insulin pathway. Mutations that affect insulin like signaling in worms, files, and the growth hormone axis in mice are associated with extended lifespan. PNC1 is transcriptionally up regulated under the conditions such as caloric restriction, heat shock, and osmotic shock. By converting nicotinamide to niacin, nicotinamide is removed, inhibiting the activity of Sir2.
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