Geriatricians are physicians who are trained in internal medicine or family medicine and then undergo additional training in geriatric medicine. The branch of medicine concerned, prevention and treatment of disease in older people and the problems specific to ageing. The recent studies have shown that geriatricians are among the most satisfied of physicians when it comes to their career choice. Geriatrics reap the rewards of making a difference in a patients level of independence well being and quality of life. Geriatric physicians focus on all aspects of health care and work as part of a health care team to address issues that affect the elderly. Medical professional who work with geriatricians include nurses, social workers, physical therapists, pharmacists and geriatric psychiatrists. The specialist cares for geriatric patients in the patients in the patients home, the office, long term care settings such as nursing homes, and the hospital.Read More
Cosmetic surgery for agieng skin is a rapidly growing field within dermatology. The formal instruction in the cosmetic surgery was uncommon for the dermatologist 20 years ago. The cosmetic procedures are now an integral part of dermatologic practice. The sunscreen lotion before going out in the sun to help protect your skin from UV light. Remember to reapply the lotion every 80 minutes to 2 hours, more if sweating or swimming. The Modern western society is obsessed with achievement, youth, and beauty. According to a new report from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, which says that many older Americans are growing concerned about rejuvenating their faces. For early signs of ageing, treatments that use retinoid, vitamin C, and alpha hydroxy acids may be enough. Some people may opt for surgery, such as a facelift, brow lift, or cosmetic surgery on the eyelids. Cosmetic procedures are potentially morbid techniques that have implications far beyond their value as "practice builders. The global increase in population also results in an increased demand for anti agieng cosmetic and aesthetic treatments. The American Academy of the Dermatology suggests that everyone should have a yearly skin check by a doctor as part of a regular physical.Read More
Theories of Ageing are defined as the result of a sequential switching on and off of certain genes, with senescence being known as the time when age-associated deficits are manifested. In case of Endocrine Theory, biological clocks act from hormones to control the pace of ageing. Wear and tear theory, where important parts in our cells and tissues wear out resulting in ageing, according to which an accumulation of cross-linked proteins damages cells and tissues, slowing down bodily processes and thus result in ageing. Free radicals theory, which proposes that superoxide and other free radicals cause damage to the macromolecular components of the cell, giving rise to accumulated damage causing cells, and eventually organs, to stop functioning. The Cross-Linking Theory of Ageing is also referred to as the Glycosylation Theory of Aging. In this theory it is the binding of glucose to protein that causes different problems. Once this binding has appeared the protein becomes impaired and is unable to perform as efficiently.Read More
Biogerontology is the special field of science that may able to help us with this particular problem. Biogerontological is the research to develop various possibilities for intervention the case for prioritizing the study of the biology of ageing can be persuasively made by making explicit its connection to exercise of the intellectual virtues needed to realize well-ordered science. Biogerontologists who study the biology of ageing believe that one of the most significant why are old cells more vulnerable to disease than are young cells. Biogerontologistsis the risk of marginalizing the field for the importance to well ordered science as the general public are likely to dismiss or underestimate the health and of the economic benefits of an intervention that retards the rate of biological ageing. Biogerontology provides a peer reviewed for publishing original research data on modulating the aging process by chemical, biological and physical. Because aging is a stochastic and nondeterministic process characterized by a progressive failure of maintenance and repair.Read More
Geriatric nutrition applies principles to slow down effects of ageing and disease in the management of the physical, psychological and psychosocial changes commonly connected with growing old. The cornerstone of geriatric nutrition is a good and satisfactory balanced diet. This provides optimal nutrition helps to slow down the leading causes of death includes heart disease, cancer, and stroke. This research indicates that dietary habits, like restricting one's calorie intake and consuming antioxidants, may increase longevity. Process in which body composition changes as fat replaces muscle is called sarcopenia. Digestive hormones and enzymes decrease, the intestinal mucosa deteriorates, and the gastric emptying time increases.so, these two conditions are more likely includes pernicious anemia and constipation. Pernicious anemia caused because of hypochlorhydria, which decreases vitamin B 12 absorption and affects exactly one third of older Americans. Laxative use among older people may result from slower GI motility, inadequate fluid intake, or physical inactivity. Geriatric nutrition must take into account sensory and oral changes. Decreases in all the senses, particularly in the taste buds that affect perception of salty and sweet tastes, may affect appetite.Read More
Genetics of ageing is concerned with life extension linked with genetic alternations, rather than with accelerated aging diseases which leads to reduction in lifespan. Michael Klass discovered that lifespan of caenorhabditis elegans could be altered by mutations, but Michael Klass believes that the effect was due to reduced food consumption. Another author named Thomas Johnson has showed that life extension of up to 65% was due to the mutation itself rather than due to calorie restriction and he named the age-1 genein other genes that control aging would be found. Gene modifications in other specie’s have not achieved as great as lifespan extension as have been seen for caenorhabditis elegans. Drosophila melanogaster lifespan has been doubled. Genetic mutations in mice can increase maximum lifespan to 1.5 times normal and up to 1.7 times normal when it combines with calorie restriction. In case of yeast, NAD+ dependent histone deacetylase Sir2 is required for genomic silencing at three loci are telomeres and Ribosomal DNA.Read More
Geriatrics is the branch of medicine which is concerned with diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease those who are suffering with ageing .The geriatric society’s health in aging fountain estimates that the over half of the older adults have at least three medical problems, including heart disease, dementia and diabetes. Working with the organization, of geriatrics leaders who identify the resources that are available to support the new model and create a strategy to implement.Read More
Geriatric oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and the treatment of cancer in the older people of age above 65.As this has received a lot of attention within the community due to the fact that the ranging of population. The specific type of cancer are breast cancer, on small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer, gastrointestinal cancer and small lymphocytic leukemia.as this study is conducted in hospital that was established by a clinic staffed by a geriatricians to assist a cancer treatment and analyses them. As the cancer specialists were collected with the nurses and care by physicians.Read More
Cell signaling is defined as the process of cell communicating with other cells within the body as this the vast network of communication between each cell of our body. Some of the forms of cell signaling are intracellular and intercellular. The intracellular are produced by same cell that receives the signal whereas the intercellular signals are travel throughout the body. The main of the cell signaling is having complexities in receptor mediated pathways that have unique functions. Different receptors involve in them are intracellular receptor, ligand gated ion channels, g-protein coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases.Read More
Gerontology is defined as the study of social, cultural and biological aspects aging as it mainly involves in the scientific study of physical, mental and societal changes which in the older people. Gerontology is not to be with geriatrics, which specifically refers to the treatment of elder people
Gerontology includes the endeavors like investigating the aging process, investigating the interface between the normal ageing and age related disease, investigating the effect of our aging population on the society on pensions and insurance, applying this knowledge to policies and programs.
Gerontology has different types contain in it as bio gerontology, social gerontology, and some academic resources. Bio gerontology includes the subfield of gerontology dedicated to the biomedical gerontology and experimental gerontology.in this the curing age related diseases in one approach and slowing down them with physical exercises. Social gerontology includes the multi-disciplinary which specializes in working with elder people. They also responsible for educating and advancing the broader causes of older people by giving them the information with books, programs and presentations
The statistics of Canada which was conducted in 2013 the older age people are about 15.3%,25% in Japanese,21% of Germans,21% of Italians and 16 % of British. IN India three fourths of Indian elders live in rural areas in this the 34% with vision problems, 26% with high blood pressure by 10%diabets and 9% with heart disease.
Psychiatric disorders can be defined as health condition that changes a person’s thinking, feelings, behavior and that causes the person to feel distress and difficulty in functioning. The main psychiatric disorders are epilepsy; Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis are brain disorders .the symptoms seen in the psychiatric disorders are feeling sad, extreme mood changes of highs and lows, major changes in eating habits, confused thinking, excessive anger and suicidal thinking. The main causes are inherited traits, environmental exposures before birth and brain chemistry. In inherited traits the mental illness is more common in people whose blood relatives have the mental illness. In environmental exposure before birth in the exposure to toxins alcohol and drugs and in the brain chemistry neurotramitters are naturally occurring brain in chemicals which carry signals.Read More
Nutrition is the science that has the interaction between the nutrients and other substances in food, growth, health and disease of an organism. The nutrition care process is designed to improve the quality of the individualized care of the patients and it is not intend to standardize nutrition care for each patient. There are four steps involved in it as nutrition assessment, nutrition diagnosis, nutrition intervention and nutrition monitoring and evaluation.it generally involves the use of diet in the treatment and management of the disease caused.Read More
It aims to explain why to survival, reproductive success, and functioning of almost all the organisms decline at the elder age. Evolutionary theories of aging are useful because they have open new opportunities for further research. It aims to explain why to survival, reproductive success, and functioning of almost all the organisms decline at the elder age. Evolutionary theories of ageing are useful because they have open new opportunities for further research.
The major evolutionary theories of ageing are mainly two categories as programmed theories and error theories. Programmed theories contain the human body which is designed to age and there is a certain biological timeline present in them. They are programmed longevity, endocrine and immunological theory. In this endocrine theory have the changes in hormones whereas the immunological theory has the programmed to decline over time leaving people more susceptible to diseases.Read More
Demographics is the study of population based on factors like age, race and sex these include the governments, non-governments organization to know more about the population characteristics for many things. The use of demographics is to determine whether its products and services are targeted. Demographics is the study of population based on factors like age, race and sex these include the governments, non-governments organization to know more about the population characteristics for many things. The use of demographics is to determine whether its products and services are targeted.Demographs trends are important since the sign of different demographic groups changes the time as results economic, cultural and political circumstances.Read More
Psychiatry is a medical specialty which is used for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment for mental disorders. These have a skills, knowledge and attitudes to be achieved by general, deal with organic and functional syndromes. Psychiatry is a medical specialty which is used for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment for mental disorders. These have a skills, knowledge and attitudes to be achieved by general, deal with organic and functional syndromes .In this general it contains the students to conduct a diagnostic interview including a mental ability examination about their symptoms. In organic the student most distinguishes between organic and non-organic psychiatric disturbance. In examinations it is necessary to stress the important of examinations. The psychiatry has the psychiatric documentation which serves numerous functions and it has psychiatry trainees to reflect on multiple concurrent goals in order to develop a note writing style different reasons for medical documentation they are record keeping, communication, billing and reimbursement and medico-legal considerations and has a challenges like time management, organization, information selection.Read More
Neuro degeneration is a progressive loss of structure or function of neurons and cause death and the specific disorders are Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, batten disease.it is a greatest risk factor for ageing people with having the mitochondrial DNA mutations and oxidative stress. Neuro degeneration is a progressive loss of structure or function of neurons and cause death and the specific disorders are Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, batten disease.it is a greatest risk factor for ageing people with having the mitochondrial DNA mutations and oxidative stress. These neurodegenerative diseases are incurable which may results in progressive degeneration called as ATAXIAS. Causes are extremely small proportion of neurodegenerative diseases with genetic mutations which have the buildup of toxic proteins in the brain and loss of mitochondrial function. The main neurodegenerative diseases are Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.Read More
Cognitive ageing describes about the process of gradual, longitudinal changes in functions that accompany the ageing process. The main factors affecting them are experience, health status, lifestyle, education, sex differences, racial and ethnic differences and emotional factors. Therefore the cognitive ageing is more preferable to terms like normal ageing. For an individual cognitive ageing is best assessed at several points in time like finding support to value of research on the trajectories of cognitive ageing and the tools used to assess cognitive changes including the norms.Read More
Elder abuse is a single, repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship there is an expectation of trust, which causes harm to an older people. This type of violence constitutes a violation of human rights and also includes the physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse, financial and material abuse; abandonment; neglect; and serious loss of dignity and respect. It includes harm by people knows, or has a relationship with, such as partner, or a friend or neighbor, or people or a spouse or a family member that the older person relies on for services. As older adults become more physically frail, stand up to bullying, or fight back if attacked, they are less able to take care of themselves, physical or mental ailments can make them more trying companions for those who are living with them. And they may not see or hear as well or think as they used to, leaving openings for unscrupulous people to take advantage of them.Read More
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